Chloroquine is now uncommonly used in favor of its derivative hydroxychloroquine. In the United States, hydroxychloroquine is most often used for its anti-inflammatory effects in rheumatology and dermatology. Does plaquenil suppress your immune system Swelling after stopping plaquenil Hydroxychloroquine 347 Plaquenil pregnancy safety The outer nuclear layer or layer of outer granules or external nuclear layer, is one of the layers of the vertebrate retina, the light-detecting portion of the eye. Like the inner nuclear layer, the outer nuclear layer contains several strata of oval nuclear bodies; they are of two kinds, viz. rod and cone granules, so named on account of. Conclusion HCQ toxicity resulted in significant outer retinal layer volumetric thinning compared with controls. Quantitative assessment of outer retinal parameters and EZ mapping on SD-OCT may become a useful biomarker to identify and monitor HCQ toxicity. The inner retinal layers are significantly thicker and hyperreflective from the acute infaract. After the initial acute phase of the retina artery occlusion, the swollen inner retinal layers will start to atrophy. OCT scans will display thin inner retinal layers with fairly normal outer retinal layers. While early toxicity may be asymtomatic, patients with more advanced stage of toxicity may complain of color vision changes or paracentral scotomas. Its toxic effects on the retina are seen in the macula. Plaquenil and thinning outer nuclear layer of retina Multimodal Imaging in Plaquenil Toxicity, Quantitative assessment of outer retinal layers and ellipsoid. User reviews of plaquenil Humphrey visual field 10-2 with C paracentral ring scotoma that correlates with retinal disease in the right eye, and D left eye. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the E right and F left eye, whose arrow shows disruption of the ellipsoid zone in the outer retina within the parafoveal area with outer nuclear layer thinning. Automated Segmentation Measurements of the Outer Nuclear.. Retinal Vascular Diseases - Optical Coherence Tomography Scans. OUTER NUCLEAR LAYER THINNING IN PACHYCHOROID PIGMENT. RETINA. The pathogenic effect of plaquenil is the induction of lysosomal dysfunction in photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium RPE cells. A lysosome is a membrane-bound organelle found in the cytoplasm of most cells and it contains hydrolytic enzymes that function in intracellular digestive processes. Quantitative thickness analysis of the outer retinal layers has also been performed. The Outer Retinal Layer Thickness ORLT 37,47 can be measured between the inner edges of the outer plexiform layer and inner boundary of the RPE. In conditions where the outer plexiform layer cannot be delineated, as in some retinal dystrophies, ORLT can be. The outer nuclear layer of FTD patients was about 10% thinner than controls, and this ONL thinning was the primary source of the outer retina thinning, the study added.