Chloroquine was first discovered in the 1930s in Germany and began to be widely used as an anti-malaria post-World War II, in the late 1940s. However, resistance to the drug also rapidly emerged, with the first cases of not being cured by administration of chloroquine being reported in the 1950s. Plaquenil and weight gain Plaquenil overdose treatment In most parts of the world, P. falciparum is resistant to chloroquine, and the recommended treatment is artemisinin bases combinations. Primaquine should be used in P. vivax and P. ovale malaria for eradicating the persisting liver forms and in P. falciparum malaria to destroy the gametocytes, so as to prevent the spread of infection. However, the efficiency of chloroquine has been severely impacted by the recent development of chloroquine resistant plasmodium falciparum parasites. The development of chloroquine resistance by malaria parasites is increasing at an alarming rate especially in the tropical countries where it is used extensively as an antimalarial drug 2. Chemosensitizing agents “resistance reversal agents” that can be coadministered with chloroquine may offer another therapeutic approach against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum. A number of agents of diverse chemical structures and properties selectively enhance the activity of chloroquine against chloroquine-resistant but not chloroquine-sensitive malaria parasites in vitro 37, 67–70. Nowadays, other drugs, and notably ones containing artemisinin-based compounds, are preferentially used to treat uncomplicated malaria and especially in areas where chloroquine resistance is known to occur. Since then, resistance has spread rapidly (since obviously it is beneficial to the parasite to be resistant, so various mutations conferring this protection have arisen multiple times in different areas in the world and also been passed on preferentially to new generations of malaria parasites), and now chloroquine resistant are found in multiple locations in south-east Asia, such as Myanmar and India, as well as from Guyana in South America. Is p falciparum chloroquine resistant PDF Chloroquine-Resistant Plasmodium Falciparum is it., Chloroquine Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum - microbewiki Plaquenil and genetic markerPlaquenil prasco labsPlaquenil and excessive sweating Since the first documentation of P. falciparum chloroquine resistance in the 1950s, resistant strains have appeared throughout East and West Africa, Southeast Asia, and South America. The effectiveness of chloroquine against P. falciparum has declined as resistant strains of the parasite evolved. Chloroquine - Wikipedia. Chloroquine-Resistant Malaria The Journal of Infectious.. Chloroquine resistant Plasmodium vivax review Worldwide.. Haiti has been a remarkable outlier as a country in which P. falciparum malaria is endemic without evidence of chloroquine CQ resistance 3,6–8. Even though Haiti has had no comprehensive national malaria control program for 20 years 9, several reports have found no evidence of CQ resistance in Haiti 3,6–8. P. falciparum malaria is almost always choloroquine resistant, although cases acquired in Haiti are a notable exception. Extensive reports of chloroquine treatment failures with P. vivax have been reported from Papua New Guinea and Indonesia along with sporadic reports from Brazil, Myanmar, India, Guyana, and Colombia. Mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter, PfCRT, are the major determinant of chloroquine resistance in this lethal human malaria parasite.